Organic-inorganic halide perovskite(for example, methylammonium lead iodide:CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells have emerged at the forefront by surpassing existing cost-effective low temperature processed thin film solar cell technologies, with certified power conversion efficiencies improved from 3.0% to 22.1% within eight years (2009-2016) of their first introduction. Power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20% have been demonstrated, through the optimisation of thin film processing methods, a better understanding of the optoelectronics, and elucidation of the working mechanism. Methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite semiconductors are having strong light absorption (~105 cm-1 absorption coefficient), appropriate direct-band gap (1.4-1.6 eV) and large carrier (electron and hole) mobilities. Furthermore, high quality thin films of CH3NH3PbI3 can be made using low temperature (<200 oC) solution process methods. However, for this technology to be deployed on a large scale, the two main challenges that need to be addressed are the material stability (moisture, temperature, light, chemical) and the toxicity of lead.
In this presentation our recent progress in improving the performance of organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells will be described with brief introduction and comparison with other thin film solar cell technologies. Significance of (anode) interface layers to make uniform and large area perovskite semiconducting thin films (in the device structure) using solution method will be discussed. Optical transfer matrix model, to design an optimised perovskite solar cell device using the complex optical constants of various layers used in the device structure will be discussed.