We live in a world of sensors. Bosch company manufactures some 4 million sensors per day. A modern car contains more than a hundred sensors.
Sensors are devices that detect and measure some type of input from the physical environment, e.g. pressure, temperature, motion, light, moisture, or concentrations of chemical species. Besides this responsivity to this particular quantity, other properties are at least as important as sensitivity. Sensors should also be selective, i.e. they should be sensitive to just the stimulus (measured). The sensor properties should stay constant to be able to draw conclusions from the measured signal to the stimulus to be measured. Sensitivity, selectivity and (long-term) stability, along with other parameters like sensor response, resolution and measurement uncertainty, form the framework to describe the properties of a sensor.
Usually, sensor will be operated for long periods of time and under challenging environmental conditions. However, there is often the demand on a high level of accuracy in the percent or even the sub-percent range. To fulfil such requirements, it often takes many years of research and development from the very first idea to marketable products. The talk will introduce the general setup of sensors, will explain the properties of sensors, and will show with which measures this low measurement uncertainty can be reached.