Biomedical optics which is an interdisciplinary branch of science and technology uses optics for improving the basic understanding of biological processes, enhancing the diagnostic efficiency and treatment of human diseases. From this perspective, medical diagnostics in the recent past has seen the challenging trend to come up with dual and multi modality imaging for implementing better diagnostic procedures. The advent of new generation broadband and coherent light sources, specialty optical fibres and the advancement in the imaging hardware and software became excellent enablers for this research trend. Also, the impact of nanotechnology has further induced a paradigm shift in medical diagnostics by way of enhancing different parameters of interest. This talk in this context will be dedicated to these aspects from a fundamental and application point of view. Further, a detailed account of multi-optical and hybrid optical modality diagnostic imaging based on the recent works carried out by the authors? group relevant to the early diagnosis of colon and breast cancers and imaging of angle closure in glaucoma patients will be presented.