Since the invention of the transistor, there have been tremendous efforts to keep Moore’s law alive and follow the scaling requirements of the semiconductor industry. In this presentation, we start by giving a short overview of the history of transistor scaling and the path that has been followed towards solutions for aggressive transistor scaling. As we are approaching the atomic and the quantum limit, we are today confronted with the challenge of finding alternative solutions towards devices and systems for future logic and memory technologies. Currently, several paths are being followed to make a paradigm shift from the “classical” transistor towards novel computation and memory schemes. In these schemes, the standard state variable in transistors (electron charge) is replaced, for example by spin waves for wave computing, by quantum state variables for quantum computing or by plasmons for plasmonic light wave computing. Currently, there is an increasing trend in fundamental and applied physics research to combine electronic, magnetic and quantum excitations using novel and hybrid materials and device architectures. This can eventually lead to new functionality for logic and memory both at the classical and quantum level.