Course Contents :
Classification of condensed matter: crystalline, noncrystalline, nanophase solids, liquids. Crystalline solids: Bravais lattices, crystal systems, point groups, space groups and typical structures. Crystal symmetry and macroscopic physical properties: tensors of various ranks: pyroelectricity, ferroelectricity, electrical conductivity, piezoelectricity and elasticity tensors. Propagation of elastic waves in crystals and measurement of elastic constants. Diffraction of waves by crystals: X-rays, neutrons, electrons. Bragg's law in direct and reciprocal lattice. Structure factor. Principles of diffraction techniques. Brillouin zones. Types of binding. Ionic crystals: Born Mayer potential. Thermochemical Bom-Haber cycle. Van der Waals binding: rare gas crystals and binding energies. Covalent and metallic binding: characteristic features and examples. Lattice dynamics: monoatomic and diatomic lattices. Born-von Karman method. Phonon frequencies and density of states. Dispersion curves, inelastic neutron scattering. Reststrahlen Specific heat. Thermal expansion. Thermal conductivity. Normal and Umklapp processes. Free electron theory of metals. Thermal and transport properties. Hall effect Electronic specific heat. Bloch functions. Nearly free electron approximation. Formation of energy bands. Gaps at Brillouin zone boudaries. Electron states and classification into insulators, conductors and semimetals. Effective mass and concept of holes. Fermi surface. Cyclotron resonance. Semiconductors: carrier statistics in intrinsic and extrinsic crystals, electrical conductivity. Liquid crystal: thermotropic and lyotropic. Nematics and sematics: applications. Amorphous/glassy states.
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