Course Contents (theory) : Errors in observations and treatment of data, estimation of errors.Measurement of high and low electrical resistivity: dc and ac four probe technique, Measurement of dielectric constant, Magnetic resonance: NMR and ESR, Importance of high vacuum, production and measurement, Operation of vacuum pumps and gauges, Production and measurements of low and high temperatures, Control of physical variables using PID control, Measurement of small amplitude signals using lock-in detection, Noise: types and methods of minimization, Optical monochromators, spectrophotometers, measurement of reflectivity, absorption and fluorescence, Rediation detectors, sensitivity and spectral response.
Course Contents (laboratory)
1.Study of phase transitions (triple point of argon, superconducting transition, magnetic phase transitions) 2. Dielectric constant measurements (using von Hippel method, GR bridge and microwave bridge) 3. Study of semiconductors (electrical resistivity using four probe method, study of p-n junctions, photoconductivity, band-band transition measurement) 4. Spectroscopy (atomic spectra of Hydrogen, Helium and Neon, Frank-Hertz experiment, ESR, NMR) 5. Material preparation and characterization (thin film deposition by thermal evaporation and d.c magnetron sputtering, Spin coating- sol-gel technique, X-ray diffraction analysis, synthesis and characterization of metal nanoparticles)
1. N.C. Barford, Experimental results: Precision, Error and Truth, John Wiley, 2nd ed (1985) 2. R. A. Dunlap, Experimental Physics: Modern Methods, OUP (1988) 3. G. K. White, Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature, Clarendon Press (1979) 4. R. C. Richardson and E. N. Smith, Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics at Low Temperatures, Advanced Book Program- ISBN 0-201-34078-0 (1998) 5. A. Roth, Vacuum Technology, Elsevier Science B.V (1990) 6. K. L. Chopra, Thin Film Phenomena, McGraw-Hill (1983)