Internal electric field in a dielectric. Clausius-Mossotti and Lorentz-Lorenz equations. Point dipole, deformation dipole and shell models. Dielectric dispersion and loss. Ferroelectrics: types and models of ferro electric transition.
Diamagnetic susceptibility. Quantum theory of paramagnetism. Transition metal ions and rare earth ions in solids. Crystal field effect and orbital quenching. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering. Curie-Weiss theory, Heisenberg theory, Curie and Neel temperatures. Domain walls, Spin waves and magnon dispersion.
Optical properties of solids: band to band absorption, excitons. polarons. Colour centres. Luminescence. Photoconductivity. Point defects: Thermodynamics of point defects. Frenkel and Schottky defects. Formation enthalpies. Diffusion and ionic conductivity. Superionic materials.
Extended defects: dislocations, models of screw and edge dislocations. Burgers vector. Stress field around dislocations, interaction between dislocations with point defects. Work hardening. Superconductivity, experimental and theoretical aspects, new materials and models.
1. Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley, 5th Edition, (1976).
2. A.J. Dekker, Solid State Physics, Prentice Hall (1957).
3. N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin, Solid State Physics, Saunders College Publishing (1976).
4. J.S. Blakemore, Solid State Physics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, (1974).
5. Mendel Sachs, Solid State Theory, McGraw-Hill (1963).
6. A.O.E. Animalu, Intermediate Quantum Theory of Solids, Prentice Hall (1977).
Course Content: Nuclear physics: basic facts about the nuclei: size, shape, binding energy, electric and magnetic moments; nuclear forces: charge independence, isospin symmetry, NN, pi-pi scattering, relations between scattering cross sections; the deuteron: models of n-p potentials; nuclear models: liquid drop and shell; elementary ideas of Effective Field Theory; elementary ideas on radioactivity: alpha, beta and gamma rays; nuclear fission and fusion; elementary ideas about nuclear reactors. Fundamental forces in nature; classification of particles: bosons and fermions; hadrons and leptons; spin, addition of angular momentum, helicity and chirality; quark content of hadrons; isospin, flavor, and color symmetry, particle quantum numbers, Gell-mann Nishijima formula. Real and virtual processes; matrix elements; relativistic kinematics of decay and interaction process (1→2 and 2→2) illustrated with examples from electromagnetic, weak and strong processes; Scattering amplitudes, differential and total cross-sections, decay rates and life-times; Breit-Wigner formula. Elementary introduction to accelerators including, event rates and luminosity; the interaction of particles with matter, scintillators and time-of-flight detectors, the principle of gas chambers, silicon detectors, calorimetry and detectors for particle identification. Large detector systems at electron-positron, electron-proton and hadron colliders.